Best PQQ Featuring Bio PQQ™ supplies pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, methoxatin), a polyphenol nutrient that is an exceptionally potent antioxidant and cell regulator.1-3 The PQQ molecule is widespread in nature, being present in numerous species of bacteria, as well as in many plants and in animals including humans.1-4 To date, PQQ is known to be produced only in bacteria, for which it serves potent roles both in antioxidant protection and as an essential cofactor for a variety of enzymes.2,4
The full details of PQQ’s metabolic and other biochemical importance are still being discovered. The molecule has powerful electronic properties, which allow it to receive and donate electrons far more efficiently than other naturally occurring antioxidants.1,2 This superior capacity for “redox cycling” is likely the foundation for PQQ’s unique actions in living systems. One group of researchers likened PQQ’s chemical attributes to combining ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (Vitamin B2), and pyridoxal (Vitamin B6) into one molecule.1
At the cell level, PQQ is a biochemical growth factor for mitochondria, the tiny dynamos within our cells that generate over 90 percent of our life energy.5 PQQ promotes mitochondrial survival, proliferation, and energy-generating performance.1-3 Beyond its mitochondrial effects, PQQ also can regulate cell development, cell signaling, even gene functions.2,6
In rats and mice, PQQ is known to be a vitamin-like “biofactor” necessary for healthy growth and fitness.1-3,7 For mice, having PQQ in the diet is necessary for healthy circulation, fertility, gastrointestinal function, and immunity. Mice made deficient in PQQ show reduction in both the numbers of mitochondria and the total volume of mitochondria per cell.7 These mitochondria also function at lower efficiency.1,7
PQQ is found in many common human foods, albeit in very small quantities,1,2 and is readily absorbed when taken by mouth.8 It is also present in human breast milk.9 PQQ has stimulated growth in cultured human cells, even when present at very low levels.10 In cultured human nerve cells, PQQ stimulated the production of nerve growth factor (NGF), an important growth factor for nerve cells located within and outside the brain.11
Two competently performed clinical trials are currently available to document PQQ’s human benefits.12,13 The first was conducted in Japan, on office workers with stress-related complaints.12 PQQ (20 mg per day for 8 weeks) improved fatigue recovery, sleep quality, and other quality of life measures. Appetite, vigor, tension, mood, self-control, and confusion were significantly improved. PQQ also significantly improved sleepiness at awakening, sleep onset and maintenance, and sleep duration.
An American clinical trial with PQQ was published in summary form, pending full publication.13 In this trial PQQ showed potent antioxidant and other tissue-supportive effects, and positively influenced mitochondrial function. The full potential of PQQ for human health remains to be elucidated, but it is highly probable that exciting new benefits will be discovered for this biochemically unique nutrient.
1. Stites TE, Mitchell AE, Rucker RB. J Nutr 2000;130:719-727.
2. Misra HS, Rajpurohit YS, Khairnar NP. J Biosci 2012;37:313-325.
3. Rucker R, Chowanadisai W, Nakano M. Altern Med Rev 2009;14:268-277.
4. Goodwin PM, Anthony C. Adv Microb Physiol 1998;40:1-80.
5. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, others. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2002;New York: Garland Publishing.
6. Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, others. J Biol Chem 2010;285:142-152.
7. Steinberg FM, Gershwin E, Rucker RB. J Nutr 1994;124:744-753.
8. Smidt CR, Unkefer CJ, Houck DR, Rucker RB. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1991;197:27-31.
9. Mitchell AE, Jones AD, Mercer RS, Rucker RB. Analyt Biochem 1999;269:317-325.
10. Naito Y, Kumazawa T, Kino I, Suzuki O. Life Sci 1993;52:1909-1915.
11. Murase K, Hattori A, Kohno M, Hayashi K. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1993;30:615-621.
12. Nakano M, Yamamoto T, Okamura H, others. Func Foods Hlth Dis 2012;2:307-324.
13. Rucker RB, Harris C, Chowanadisai W, Slupsky C. FASEB J 2012;26:363.1 (abstract only).