This bone health supplement is balanced and synergistic, a product of extensive research into the current medical and scientific understanding of bone. Among this product’s unique benefits:
• Diverse nutrient spectrum for comprehensive bone maintenance.*
• Supports bone matrix formation, a requisite for calcium utilization.*
• Provides a generous 1800 IU of vitamin D3 for healthy bone calcification.*
• Its vitamin K2 (as MK-7) surpasses other K vitamin forms in supporting bone formation.*
• Provides optimized allowances of calcium, magnesium, and other essential bone minerals.
• Avoids technical shortcuts that use magnesium oxide or other poorly absorbed ingredients.
• Offers potential benefits that extend beyond bone to promote overall health and wellbeing.*
Calcium Is Not Sufficient to Build Bone
Clinical studies have established that high-calcium dietary supplements by themselves do not reliably increase bone density or reduce fracture risk.1,2 Many other nutrients are required.3 The formation of new bone is really a complex process that involves first, building a scaffolding—the bone matrix—then adding in calcium and other minerals to produce hardness and strength.3,4 This bone matrix is roughly comparable to the “rebar” that is set in place prior to pouring concrete. The bone’s “concrete” is formed at the end as hard mineral crystals that naturally include not just calcium but magnesium, strontium and other minerals.5
The bone matrix is a molecular network primarily of large collagen molecules, interspersed with smaller amounts of other proteins and with large protein-carbohydrate molecules (“glycosaminoglycans”).5 The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) this formula provides is a necessary factor for the enzymes that make collagen.6 The formula’s complement of other nutrients is designed to enable the bone cells to build healthy bone matrix and achieve full bone mineralization. But this formula avoids supplying more calcium than the bone matrix can accommodate, especially since recent clinical findings suggest that calcium supplements not balanced by other key bone nutrients may create unnecessary health risks.7,8
Vitamin D Enables Calcium to Build Bone
This formula’s highly active vitamin D3 is converted by the body into a master hormone that regulates calcium activity, not just in bone but all around the body.4 Bone requires adequate vitamin D to properly form and harden—poor vitamin D status is linked to increased risk for fracture.9 Poor muscle tone also contributes to risk of falls and consequent fracture, and vitamin D also helps preserve muscle function.10 The considerable clinical data makes clear that the higher one’s blood vitamin D level, the lower the risk for falls and fractures.4,9
Men as much as women need relatively high blood vitamin D levels to maintain the high bone density11 that protects against falls and fractures.9-11 Yet among adults 65 and older, at least 40 percent are insufficient or deficient in vitamin D.12 Calcium Bone Maker® Complex supplies a generous 1800 International Units of cholecalciferol, the most active form of vitamin D.
Vitamin K Synergizes with Vitamin D to Manage Calcium
Long known as essential for clotting (K stands for Koagulation4), vitamin K is also essential for “guiding” calcium to where it belongs (the bones, teeth and other hard tissues), rather than to the soft tissues where calcium’s accumulation can cause serious harm.7 Just as vitamin K activates the clotting proteins, it is essential to activate several proteins that bind calcium into the forming bone.4 These include osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and others.4,13 Low dietary vitamin K2 intakes are linked to abnormal calcification of the coronaries and other large arteries, the heart valves, the heart muscle, or the kidney tubules.14 By providing the most active K2 form (MK-7) at 80 micrograms per day, this formula ensures the necessity of vitamin K for healthy bone maintenance.
The crucial bone building contributions of vitamin D, vitamin K, and calcium come together at osteocalcin, the second most abundant protein in bone after collagen.13 Osteocalcin strongly attracts and binds with calcium to calcify the collagen matrix.4 Osteocalcin’s production by the bone cells requires vitamin D, and its subsequent activation requires vitamin K.4,13
Magnesium And Other Minerals Also Essential to Bone
Magnesium is essential to healthy bone formation, and especially to support and balance calcium.15,16 Magnesium insufficiency is linked with abnormal lowering of calcium in the blood.17 Some 50-60 percent of the body’s magnesium actually is located in bone.16
Several other minerals are crucial for making healthy bone. Zinc is required to make new bone matrix proteins.18 Copper is essential for enzymes that crosslink collagen into the bone matrix, and also helps balance zinc.19 Manganese is required by enzymes that make glycoproteins for the bone matrix.20 Boron supports calcium and magnesium metabolism21 and probably also bone growth factors.22 Potassium supports calcium and magnesium utilization and helps conserve healthy bone mineral density.23
Calcium Bone Maker ® Complex is a product of the modern science of bone, superior to supplements that supply merely calcium without the diverse other nutrient essential for bone health. This supplement also reflects the recent findings that high dietary calcium is not necessarily effective for building bone and may even be unsafe: A comprehensive 2010 analysis concluded that taking calcium supplements at intakes higher than 700 mg per day likely increases risk for heart problems.7 Other meta-analyses suggest that taking calcium supplements without vitamin D may increase the risk for hip fractures.1 This formula’s provision of vitamin D3 ensures its highly bioavailable calcium will effectively ensure strong bone formation.
Metabolic balance studies are the most precise means for measuring nutrient requirements. Volunteers are confined in a metabolic ward, fed all their meals from a dietetic kitchen, and continuously monitored to determine their total metabolic “economy” of the nutrient being studied. From numerous calcium balance studies, the total dietary calcium needed is reliably estimated at 700-750 mg per day.15,25,26 Calcium intakes from food average at least several hundred milligrams per day,27 and total intakes over 2,000 mg per day could be risky.27,28 The daily 600 mg of calcium from this formula is therefore safe and adequate for the U.S. population.
This formula also avoids taking shortcuts with its nutrient ingredients. For example, magnesium deficiency is widespread in the U.S. and is linked to bone loss and other health problems,16,17 yet many supplement products use magnesium oxide which is very poorly absorbed.15 The recommended dietary allowance of magnesium is 320-420 mg per day.16 This formula supplies 300 mg per day of magnesium as dimagnesium malate, from which the magnesium is very well absorbed and the malate portion contributes to making energy.29
1.Reid IR, Bolland MJ, Grey A. Effect of calcium supplementation on hip fractures. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:1119-1123.
2.Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, others. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1780-1790.
3.Yaegashi Y, Onoda T, Tanno K, others. Association of hip fracture incidence and intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and vitamin K. Eur J Epidemiol 2008;23:219-225.
4.Kidd PM. Vitamins D and K as pleiotropic nutrients: clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems and preliminary evidence for synergy. Altern Med Rev 2010;15:199-122.
5.Feng X. Chemical and biochemical basis of cell-bone matrix interaction in health and disease. Curr Chem Biol 2009;3:189-196.
6.Peterkofsky B. Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1135S–1140S.
7.Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, others. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ (Brit Med J) 2010;341:c3691 (Online First-9 pages).
8.Russo D, Miranda I, Ruocco C, others. The progression of coronary artery calcification in predialysis patients on calcium carbonate or sevelamer. Kidney Int 2007;72:1255-1261.
9.Dawson-Hughes B, Mithal A, Bonjour JP, others. IOF position statement: vitamin D recommendations for older adults. Osteoporos Int 2010;21:1151-1154.
10.Bischoff-Ferrari H. Health effects of vitamin D. Dermatol Ther 2010;23:23-30.
11.Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Kiel DP, Dawson-Hughes B, others. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U.S. adults. J Bone Miner Res 2009; 24:935-942.
12.Barnard K, Colon-Emeric C. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D in older adults: cardiovascular disease, mortality, mood, and cognition. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2010;8:4-33.
13.Berkner KL. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation. Vitam Horm 2008;78:131-156.
14.Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, others. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis 2009;203:489-493.
15.Nishimuta M, Kodama N, Morikuni E, others. Equilibrium intakes of calcium and magnesium within an adequate and limited range of sodium intake in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2006;52:402-406.
16.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
17.Killilea DW, Maier JAM. A connection between magnesium deficiency and aging: new insights from cellular studies. Magnes Res 2008;21:77-82.
18.Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, others. Spinal bone loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr 1994;124:1060-64.
19.Siegel RC, Piimeli SR, Martin GR. Crosslinking of collagen and elastin: properties of lysyl oxidase. Biochemistry 1970;9:4486-4490.
20.Leach RM, Muenster AM, Wein E. Studies on the role of manganese in bone formation. II. Effect on chondroitin sulfate synthesis in chick epiphyseal cartilage. Arch Biochem Biophys 1969;133: 22-28.
21.Hunt CD, Herbel JL, Nielsen FH. Metabolic responses of postmenopausal women to supplemental dietary boron and aluminum during usual and low magnesium intake. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:803-813.
22.Hakki SS, Bozkurt BS, Hakki EE. Boron regulates mineralized tissue-associated proteins in osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). J Trace Elem Med Biol 2010 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]
23.Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, others. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:727-736.
24.Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Hale CA, Bendich A. Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:142-146.
25.Hunt CD, Johnson LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance data from metabolic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1054-1063.
26.Neilsen FH. The alteration of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus metabolism by dietary magnesium deprivation in postmenopausal women is not affected by dietary boron deprivation. Magnes Res 2004;17:197-210.