• Vitamin B1 (thiamin) plays a central role in the generation of energy from carbohydrates, is involved in RNA and DNA production, and supports nerve function.
• Vitamin B2 (riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate) is involved in energy production, and must be converted to its active form, riboflavin 5’-phosphate, in order to be utilized by the body.
• Vitamin B3 (niacin) plays an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol, and supports healthy cholesterol production for those already within a normal range.
• Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate) is involved in the metabolism of amino acids and lipids, the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hemoglobin, and in the production of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3). The vitamin plays an important role in maintaining gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids). Pyridoxine must be converted to pyridoxal 5’phosphate (P5P) in the liver to be used by the body.
• Biotin plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates.
• Folic acid helps the cells in the body make and maintain DNA, and aids in maintaining the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) within normal range.
• Methylcobalamin is the active form of vitamin B12 in the central nervous system. The vitamin enhances methylation and acceleration of nerve cell growth and supports healthy homocysteine levels for those whose levels are already within a normal range.
• Choline bitartrate is needed for structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, and cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis). It is a major source for methyl groups and their metabolite (TMG).
• Inositol is a key intermediate of secondary messengers and a primary component of cellular membrane phospholipids. Inositol is essential for calcium and insulin signal transduction and serotonin activity modulation.
• PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) acts as an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid.
1. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;355:80-97.