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PureWay-C® Sustained Release Vitamin C contains PureWay-C®, a newly discovered form of vitamin C consisting of highly absorbable vitamin C-lipid metabolites. Vitamin C-lipid metabolites have faster and more beneficial effects than other forms of vitamin C . PureWay-C® Sustained Release Vitamin C also contains citrus bioflavonoids and ascorbyl palmitate. Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble form of vitamin C that is able to be stored in lipid cell membranes for later use. Citrus bioflavonoids include the flavonones, such as hesperidin and naringin, as well as the polymethoxylated flavones, such as tangeretin and nobiletin. Bioflavonoids, and citrus bioflavonoids in particular, work in conjunction with vitamin C to improve absorption and boost its effects .
The PureWay-C® formulation allows for better cellular uptake and absorption of vitamin C.* This enhances the opportunity for vitamin C to take part in its wide range of support for the human body.* Vitamin C is the main water-soluble nutrient antioxidant in human plasma and has many functions. It is a potent free radical scavenger, immune enhancer, and cell protector.* It maintains collagen, helps form red blood cells, aids in the absorption of iron, stimulates adrenal function, and helps detoxify certain metals and drugs. It also plays a role in the synthesis of mood-enhancing neurotransmitters, in cholesterol metabolism, and in mediating inflammation.* Citrus bioflavonoids are also antioxidants with their own powerful biological effects including modulation of the immune system, anti-inflammatory activity, and protection of the nervous system.*
PureWay-C® is a novel vitamin C preparation containing vitamin C-lipid metabolites. Studies in the laboratory show that human cells absorb this new form of vitamin C more rapidly and in greater amounts than the three most popular forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate.*
Laboratory (in vitro) research also shows that PureWay-C®:
• Protects the nervous system by promoting the survival of nerve cells *
• Protects the immune system against damage induced by pesticides *
• Delivers effective antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity *
• Enhances normal wound healing by improving the functioning of collagen-secreting fibroblast cells *
Human clinical studies conducted with PureWay-C® also show:
• PureWay-C® is better absorbed and retained in the serum at higher levels.*
• PureWay-C® decreases blood levels of a common marker of an imbalanced immune response.*
• PureWay-C® decreases blood levels of a common marker of oxidative stress (cellular degeneration resulting from free radical production).*
The PureWay-C® vitamin C-lipid metabolite formulation has potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities based on ORAC and DPPH assays, two methods commonly used to evaluate antioxidant capacities. PureWay-C® reached 93% scavenging capability using the DPPH assay, indicative of an excellent free radical scavenger. PureWay-C® has 1343 units of antioxidant activity per gram based on ORAC analysis (ORAC values are in ėM Trolox® Equivalents/gram of substance), showing stronger antioxidant activity on a gram basis than some other common natural sources of antioxidants such as green and black teas (235-1526 ORAC units), cinnamon (1243), and broccoli (65.8-121.6) .*
In order for vitamin C to exert its antioxidant benefits, it must be able to get inside cells. PureWay-C® was tested for its ability to be taken up and retained in the cell, and for the rate at which it is able to do so. Compared to ascorbic acid, the most common form of vitamin C, PureWay-C® showed a 233% increase in cellular uptake into human T-lymphocytes at both 30 and 45 minutes. This absorption level was a 122% improvement over the next best form of vitamin C, calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate. The absorbed levels peaked at approximately two hours with the cellular level of PureWay-C® at 50 nmol / mg .
In order to assess absorption in humans, PureWay-C® serum levels were measured in healthy volunteers after oral supplementation. Forty volunteers maintained a low vitamin C diet for 14 days and, following an overnight fast, received a single oral dose of 1000 mg of either ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate, PureWay-C®, or calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the oral dose administration and at various times after ingestion. Serum vitamin C levels were measured, and PureWay-C® supplementation led to the highest absolute serum vitamin C levels when compared to the other forms of vitamin C. At two hours, PureWay-C® levels were statistically significantly higher than ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate. At 24 hours post treatment, PureWay-C® maintained the highest serum levels of vitamin C .
Excessive, chronic, or unbalanced immune activation is associated with a variety of health problems. High levels of certain proteins in the blood serve as indicators of this unhealthy condition. Levels of vitamin C in the blood have been found to be inversely associated with these protein markers of unbalanced immune activation . Recent research has attributed much of the beneficial immune-related effects of vitamin C supplementation to the reduction of circulating levels of these markers .
To test the effects of vitamin C on levels of these markers in humans, forty volunteers maintained a low vitamin C diet for 14 days and, following an overnight fast, received a single oral dose of 1000 mg of either ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate, PureWay-C®, or calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the oral dose administration and at various times after ingestion. Plasma levels of two markers of unbalanced immune activation were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oral supplementation with PureWay-C® led to greater reductions in plasma levels of these markers compared to the other vitamin C formulations. Overall, PureWay-C® supplementation resulted in greater and more beneficial effects than what was observed with the other forms of vitamin C .
Laboratory testing also indicates PureWay-C® has a greater protective effect on immune cells that have been exposed to toxins and pesticides.* PureWay-C® is more active and effective than ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate and other popular forms of vitamin C in reducing hyperactivity of white blood cells and inflammatory damage caused by substances that are foreign to the body.* Human T-lymphocytes are white blood cells that aggregate or clump together when exposed in the laboratory to toxins such as the common pesticide bifenthrin or the toxin phytohemagglutinin (PHA). These immune cells were treated in vitro with bifenthrin and PHA, and then either given no further treatments or treated further with PureWay-C® or other popular ascorbate brands. The cells were then incubated and the number of cells per aggregate was determined. PureWay-C® reduced PHA-induced T-cell aggregation, a marker of inflammatory hyperactivation, more than other popular forms of vitamin C . When these immune cells were treated with the pesticide bifenthrin, along with various formulations of vitamin C, all of the vitamin C formulations reduced the pesticide-mediated aggregation. However, the effect of PureWay-C® on inhibiting the aggregation was at least double the effect of the next best vitamin C formulation .
Various citrus bioflavonoids also possess a wide range of immune and inflammation- related therapeutic properties . Immune and inflammation responses are controlled by enzymes and cytokines produced in the body such as TNF-alpha, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Citrus bioflavonoids can inhibit these enzymes and cytokines to decrease inflammatory responses in vitro . In vitro studies also indicate how bioflavonoids modulate inflammation through a number of other mechanisms, such as inhibition of gene expression in the cells lining blood and lymph vessels . In these ways, bioflavonoids may support overall immune health and wellness.
Most prospective studies assessing vitamin C intake in large numbers of people who are followed over time indicate that the highest intakes of vitamin C are associated with enhanced cardiovascular benefits. In addition, some large studies in healthy individuals who take vitamin C supplements suggest that vitamin C supplements support normal heart function. The Nurses Health Study of more than 85,000 women followed for over 16 years found vitamin C intakes of more than 359 mg per day from diet plus supplements or from supplements alone were associated with a 27-28% reduction in cardiovascular risk factors . In a recent review of studies in which more than 290,000 healthy adults were followed for an average of 10 years, those who took more than 700 mg per day of supplemental vitamin C had a substantially better cardiovascular profile than those who did not take vitamin C supplements .
One of the ways vitamin C may enhance cardiovascular health is by supporting levels of good cholesterol (HDL) that are already within the normal range. Researchers from the National Institute on Aging and the USDA investigated the effect of vitamin C intake on lipid metabolism . After adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and smoking, they found that in healthy adults with adequate vitamin C intake there was a significant positive association between high levels of plasma vitamin C and healthy lipid ratios. The research suggested that higher concentrations of vitamin C in the blood, the result of taking up to two to three times the RDA, are associated with improved cardiovascular health.
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that citrus bioflavonoids also support healthy cardiovascular function and circulation . An analysis of the flavonoid intake of 34,489 postmenopausal women in the sixteen-year Iowa Women's Health Study found significant positive correlations between flavonone and flavone intake and cardiovascular function . These two categories of flavonoids, flavonones and flavones, are the primary flavonoids found in citrus fruit. Hypothesized mechanisms by which flavonoids may have cardioprotective effects include antioxidant protection of lipid molecules, anti-inflammatory action, improvement in endothelial function, and enhancement of circulation [14, 15].
Vitamin C is thought to protect the nervous system from degeneration. In order for nerve cells to survive, the body secretes a critical protein called nerve growth factor (NGF). In the laboratory, vitamin C formulations enhance the NGF-mediated growth of nerve cells. In vitro research indicates that compared to other forms of vitamin C, PureWay-C® is more beneficial to the nervous system. Nerve cells were treated with 100 ng/ml of NGF, and incubated for a 24-hour period. These cells then received either no further treatment, or treatment with 0.5 ėM of ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate, PureWay-C® or other ascorbate brands. After these treatments, the cells were incubated over another 24-hour period during which the formation of developing nerve cells was assessed at hours 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24. Compared with the other forms of vitamin C, PureWay-C® significantly increased the formation of developing nerve cells .
Citrus bioflavonoids have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in laboratory and animal models. Hesperidin, for instance, has the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and act on the central nervous system . Hesperidin and related citrus bioflavonoids protect nerve cells against oxidative damage in vitro . Even at physiological concentrations, these flavonoids significantly protected cells of the nervous system from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage. Hydrogen peroxide is formed in the brain under certain conditions, and quickly converts to highly toxic hydroxy radicals that damage nerve cells.
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9. Osganian, S.K., et al., Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2003. 42(2): p. 246-52.
10. Knekt, P., et al., Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr, 2004. 80(6): p. 1508-20.
11. Hallfrisch, J., et al., High plasma vitamin C associated with high plasma HDL- and HDL2 cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr, 1994. 60(1): p. 100-5.
12. Knekt, P., et al., Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(3): p. 560-8.
13. Mink, P.J., et al., Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007. 85(3): p. 895-909.
14. O'Byrne, D.J., et al., Comparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(6): p. 1367-74.
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16. Hwang, S.L. and G.C. Yen, Neuroprotective effects of the citrus flavanones against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. J Agric Food Chem, 2008. 56(3): p. 859-64
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